Factors responsible for bone loss after immediate implants

A clinical study on implantation of the marginal bone loss after the posterior immediate implants

By: Ki-Kwan Choi, Jun-Young Paeng


Purpose

The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of marginal bone loss of the maxillary and mandibular posterior immediate implants and analyze the possible influence of different conditions.


Materials & Methods

Study design : Retrospective study

Subjects and Outcomes of the study

 

  • Period : From 2013 to 2015. (mean 1-year F/up)
  • Patients : A total of 89 patients (67 men and 21 women)
  • Implants : 107 TSIII CA short implants

 

The potential influence of different variables (cause of extraction, implant diameter, length, location, surgical procedure, width of extraction socket, general disease, additional bone grafting procedure) were studied based on the medical records and oral radiographs.


Results

  • Survive rate – 100% (observation time of 12 months)
  • Mean marginal bone loss – 0.09mm on 3 month, 0.05 mm on 6 month and 0.03 mm on 24 month.
  • Implant type and extraction cause and other factors has an impact on marginal bone loss (P<0.05).

 

Table 1. MBL according to the surgical procedures and additional bone grafting technique

  Number of implants (n) MBL
3 M 6 M 1 Y
Surgical procedures
1-stage 98 0.100 ± 0.055 0.055 ± 0.024 0.032 ± 0.017
2-stage 9 0.112 ± 0.041 0.059 ± 0.024 0.034 ± 0.017
Bone grafting
Yes 55 0.104 ± 0.049 0.057 ± 0.026 0.033 ± 0.018
No 52 0.099 ± 0.059 0.053 ± 0.022 0.031 ± 0.016

Kruskal-Wallis: P 0.05.

 

Table 2. MBL according to the general history of patients

General history Number of implants (n) MBL
     
    3 M 6 M 1 Y
No History 72 0.105 ± 0.058 0.058 ± 0.026 0.034 ± 0.018
DM 10 0.118 ± 0.055 0.048 ± 0.018 0.034 ± 0.012
Hypertension 4 0.065 ± 0.024 0.035 ± 0.013 0.013 ± 0.010
others 21 0.087 ± 0.034 0.051 ± 0.018 0.030 ± 0.012

DM: diabetes mellitus.

Others: heart disease, myoma uteri, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism. Kruskal-Wallis: P 0.05.

 

Table 3. MBL according to the socket width

Socket Width Number of implants (n) MBL
3 M 6 M 1 Y
         
˂5mm 39 0.097 ± 0.062 0.053 ± 0.020 0.029 ± 0.015
5 ~ 8 mm 26 0.091 ± 0.036 0.049 ± 0.018 0.030 ± 0.014
≥8mm 40 0.112 ± 0.053 0.061 ± 0.030 0.036 ± 0.020

Kruskal-Wallis: P 0.05.

 

Table 4. MBL according to the causes for extraction

Extraction Number of implants (n) MBL
3 M* 6 M 1 Y
Caries 27 0.081 ± 0.039 0.047 ± 0.019 0.030 ± 0.016
Fx 2 0.065 ± 0.007 0.035 ± 0.007 0.020 ± 0.000
Perio 78 0.109 ± 0.057 0.058 ± 0.025 0.033 ± 0.017

Kruskal-Wallis: P 0.05. (perio and caries showed statistically significant differences in post hoc test).


Conclusion

In this study, we analyzed the factors affecting marginal bone change in 107 implants that were placed immediately after extraction and were followed up for more than 1 year after prosthesis installation.

  1. The loss of marginal bone did not differ according to the factors such as the presence of systemic disease, the condition of extraction at the time of extraction, the condition of implant implant or abutment, and the time of prosthesis and the presence of bone graft.
  2. In case of extraction due to periodontal disease according to the cause of extraction, it showed statistically significant amount of marginal bone loss than other cases such as caries, but It wasn’t enough to affect clinically success or survival of implant
  3. Immediately placed implants under various conditions show good results and are considered predictive clinical treatment.

 

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